A History of Paraguay
By Baruja, Paiva & Pinto

Chapter 15

The ‘Red party’ became an insatiable, bloodthirsty, and ruthless inquisitor; they persecuted all the citizens who did not submit to their power. The persecution was implacable, wild, and brutal. As people got elected into office, more people of the same party were introduced and brought into office. These people used the administration of the country, and seized national finances; they were uncontrollable and unlimited. Even though they had internal conflicts and protesting voices were raised in the society, they surpassed their internal conflicts quickly, and these voices were soon silenced. The party was able to resolve conflicts with success; slowly but inexorably, the party grew, with an ideological doctrine that went from social Populism to pure fascism, stronger and more powerful until today.

One of the worst consequences of this persecution was the loss of population in the country; these people had found refuge in neighboring countries, thus with the emigration of such an important part of the nation’s population, it contributing to the most immense emigration in the Americas. Most emigrants settled in the neighboring Argentine Republic, where they have contributed their efforts, labor, and culture. Due to the economic or political circumstances later, this wave of emigration was and is still persistent.

In 1954, within the only authorized and qualified party, which were the Colorado, General Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda gained power to rule, and since then, he governed Paraguay until 1989, when he was overthrown by factions of the same party.

General Stroessner’s regime, which was known for it ruthless authoritarianism and excessive abuses of their power, maintained their power by forging elections with some minority parties, who were paid and subsidized by the regime, and thereby creating a disguise of a democratic regime. Although the reality is that it was cruel and tyrannical regime ruling with a dictatorial and despotic system; the dictator’s omnipresence made it impossible for ideologies to exist.

The implacable, tenacious, and ruthless persecution was one of the foundations of the regime’s rule. Anyone who dared to go against the regime, to its activities, to have opinions or aims, was persecuted and silenced. Stroessner, taking advantage of the tension between the East and the West, got involved in the NATO and the Warsaw Pact. He tactically used the cold war by appealing to a rabid anti-communism; by doing this, he gained the approval and benevolence of the countries that were against communism.

With the United States’ and its associates of the West’s blessings, for a long time they turned a blind eye to the abusive power. After stopping the advance of communism in Latin America, they reopened this issue and made huge loans of money. Stroessner became one of the most ferocious dictators known in the Paraguayan history when he imposed the most despotic dictatorship until then. He persecuted any type of organization of any nature, objective, or aim.

Stroessner, who was against Communism, he went to the Western countries, soliciting in the name of the country and maintaining and resolving the economic support for Paraguay. However, his true intentions were to continue financing the projects that benefited himself and his own interest. Isn’t there an obvious similarity between Stroessner and the current African leaders?

Stroessner modified the Constitution of the Republic according to his own interests, desire, and comfort. He created repressive, cruel, and persecutory laws, and executed his opponents as well as intellectuals or workers in the country. The nation was completely under his tyrannical rule.

He destroyed the essential base of every society, which is the education; he manipulated, it asphyxiated, and finally destroyed the education. Under his rule, the educated class was declining in its qualities and skills. He put in a group of new, submissive, and inept teachers who had little capacity and hierarchy.

The ideological manipulation with strong facist conception, imposed to all the country like, any event or event of the daily life, turned around the regime, more concretely to the image and appears of "líder'; or they are these sport inaugurations of any nature, feats, or simple cultural events. The system that presided over, created and imposed an own official history.

It looked for figures to mistificar like Lopez and Bernardino Horseman, elevating them to the category of heroes, strengthening and reinforcing this as it bases and sustenance of its totalitarian conception, and on which it turned and it gravitated always its figure.

Marshal Francisco Solano Lopez, raised until the referring weariness like symbolic of the nationalistic facist ideology; that jointly with warlike feats they were the doctrinario axis of the system.

He strengthened the use of the force, the denunciation, distributed by all the territory of the republic bodies of scavengers and spies. The control of the society was absolute. Suffocating. Exasperating. Terrorífico. It established during almost all his mandate the state of siege, without constitutional guarantees all human being who was within the territory of the republic.

The positions health public, of education, police officers, the military, of administration were jammed by the loyal ones their government, without concerning capacity or suitability. This in that amount of time, of 40 years of manipulation, took to the country to its total moral annihilation. To his total administrative ineptitude, turning it which is until nowadays, where the public administration has transformed itself into a closed boundary, where they are developed all type of corruption acts, with absolute and behaved shamelessly impunity, with administrative crimes, corporative and economic, doing of the country, a paradise of the national and international delinquency.

An example of the subtle ideological manipulation of the masses. Víctor Manuel Pecci, tennis player, before a sport profit, finalized the competition, had to go to salute to Stroessner, symbolizing that the sport profit era; it had to be dedicated to the figure of the President. Everything was extorsion and submission. Everything turned surroundings to its person, and the system that maintained it. (Government, Party and FF.AA., a perverse trilogy)

He maintained to the police body under his direct orders, transformed them into a body of political repression. To these, he maintained them fanatizados, hambreados, with miserable pays, without minimumly worthy equipment to fight the true delinquency; with little formation nor skill to discover tremendous and serious the illicit ones, like those true crimes that its own surroundings committed. It imposed the torture, psychological physics and to even persecute to his opponents and political enemies, who corresponded to all the ideological and social phantoms, members of his own party that was against to them. It imposed in the country the denunciation, the bribe and the insult. Thus, at the moment, and under the empire of which he was all that, the corruption, the prebendarismo, the incapacity and ineptitude in the controls and administrative directions of the state, is dominated in the country, fact that the passed time is almost impossible yet to change it in a reasonably short lapse. One is going away to have to wait for long time so that the country resurges and leaves brete in which it was suspended.

Under the unrestricted consent of the regime, the country was invaded by local Mafias as as much foreign, that they used the country as operational base for his commercial, national and international transactions. They were famous ex- jerarcas Nazi, the narcotics traffickers, the international delinquents, who found to Stroessner, a man of blood teutona, an unconditional support to escape to the foreign courts whom they required of them. Thus, the Mafia, the traffic and the illegal commerce, the falsification on industrial scale, and the drug trafficking was appropriated and dominated the country to the present time.

Some groups of being able, created and been born under the direct auspice and influence of the regime, by means of powerful international loans, that the same dictator managed to accede thanks to his anti-communist position; (the great excuse for the submission of the country), they developed emprendimientos of "progress", where to make routes, bridges, schools, hospitals, and other "corporate properties" for "the town", they allowed them to squander to these factions and sectors, exorbitant fortunes on invoicing everything what one became, even what one did not become, or it let do, which equal religiously they were received of the public State Treasury, or of we lent them that graceful and preposterously the international organizations granted in that then. The name of the dictator was praised in each action or made work, like attribute and capacity of this one, in the handling of the country, feeding and maintaining with this, the political and ideological manipulation from the town at levels that for a long time still, the country is going it to continue suffering and being sorry.

These "works of government", became indebted to the country in extraordinary monetary amounts, without at the moment having a at least acceptable valuation of this ruthless and uncontrollable wastefulness of money. Stroessner persistence in the work accomplishment great and gigantic with the governments de facto (military governments) of the neighboring, quick countries also for negotiated, as the hydroelectric dams, (Itaipú and Yacyretá), without the country at the moment, nor in a moderately near future, has planned the advantage of a mini part of this extraordinary power production, that in first of the cases or takes the third of life utility. It was given under disadvantageous contracts, to these neighboring countries, the sale of the excess of energy, to miserable values, very below his real valuation. It is more, million dollars were turned aside in favor of the corporative groups that supported, endorsed, protected and attended by the system; at the present time they constitute powerful factors of being able, that destabilize to the country according to the game of interests that they have at the moment.

The city of Port President Stroessner, today City of the East, became the more powerful international contraband center of the subcontinent, arriving to even have so extraordinary a commercial movement, even to the one of great commercial cities like Hong Kong or Miami. In this city, at the moment in declining condition, due to the customs dispositions of the neighboring countries and to the concretion of the Common Market, Mercosur, they were made all type of transactions. In her uncontrollable gangster groups nailed themselves powerful and, as well as great posters of dealers, conformed in their majority by foreigners, Chinese, Arab and of the same country own, dedicated in innumerable dirty and fraudulent businesses, that by means of the contraband gigantic product scale commercialization, without paying tax exemptions, invaded per decades the Brazilian and Argentine markets, with contraband products, real or falsified. They were trillions of dollars in products and merchandises "allowed" or prohibited, like electronic, articles of consumption, traffic, arm, drug traffic military and deals with white, falsifications, copies, commercial piracy, etc.; that they did jointly with "legal" the commercial triangulation, could be maintained to a certain extent relieved the internal economic conditions of the country; in spite of the galloping ruling economic anarchy. The illegal commerce came from the industrial article falsification from known marks like clocks, electronic equipment, computer science, household-electric, articles to dress, illegal footwear, copies in gigantic amounts of musical, computer science compact discs, films, videos, etc., whose distribution ramificaba to all the South cone of the subcontinent.

This conjunctural circumstance of economic relief had to the significant dripping of this extraordinary and gigantic volume of money, that never really entrance to the country, but which to a certain extent covered the angustiante labor scarcity with the country, that jointly with the construction of the work of Itaipú gave to a certain extent sufficient oxygen to the regime, to develop its criminal acts. These capitals that never entered the country, were turned aside to others, like a the Caribbean banks or so benevolent, complacientes and permisivos countries like Paraguay, but more insurances. The money laundering, and the lived daily irregularities in this extraordinary and uncontrollable black market, have caused that, at the moment the neighboring governments impose to this city the deserved title of latent danger in the area, because also she lodges to nuclei or groups of Arab fundamentalist terrorists, who already made several acts and attacks in Argentina, country with a strong Jewish emigration, white of their criminal acts. The illicit ones lined the bestiality like the commercialization of children where the state never took the pertinent collections from control and pursuit, creating the consequent conception of the possible sale of these for its use in transplants of human organs.

The "spiral" whereupon stayed and on which basic Stroessner leaned and essentially it was dedicated to all type of traffic and illegal commerce. As example is the traffic of arms of all type, that Paraguay hypothetical bought for use and domestic use, but was turned aside, and it was provided to the Republic of South Africa, that by reasons for the assumed internal apartheid, (racism), was had to him prohibited to deal internationally. Businesses did not exist that did not have forts deflections of bottoms, and where they were implied personeros of the regime. To those investors who did not agree or they were not in conspiracy with the regime, simply one pressed them, one extorted them until twisting them, to cost of important sums of money, or, to the unrestricted submission to the imposed ills. The enterprise class had to be completely put under, even had to render pleitesía and genuflexión, if it did not want to take another destiny.

Stroessner created around himself, an iron belt conformed by the trading military, who put in innumerable illicit, squandered considerable and unimaginable fortunes; constituting they in the greater and better support of the tyrant. All this, sank to the country to the distortion of the values, to the postration, the delay like constant, its moral destruction as as much cultural. Productively, the country that essentially was dedicated to this fatídica commercial triangulation; one went away suspending, being slow, destroying inexorably, annulling to individual, thinking, rational, empty the individual like to be of convictions and collective yearnings.

The inheritance of this setback is extremely heavy; they exist at the present time, extensive zones of the country that do not count on paved routes, medical assistance, with educative attendance, with sanitary basic services. The country to reduced to a quality of life with minimum, miserable comfort in comparison to its next neighbors.

All this wastefulness and abuse without limits, took the retardation degree and delay from the country to a avergonzante end, where the class farmer, bases and sustenance of all the economic gear of the country, (Paraguay does not have other types of wealth like minerals or factories of technological production, except the hydroelectric one), between is delayed in quality and capacity of production. With the exception of the great agricultural corporations, conformed generally by powerful foreign economic groups, agriculturists do not exist; if farmers, of inland, minimumly adapted and apt to produce with a hardly profitable capacity; where everyone generally handles with criteria and uses already exiled, rudimentary and desactualizados.

The governmental attendance is turned aside towards in favor political sectors, and even in most of the cases, simply any support is not lent. The quality of life of that they have earth is of the one to have wood plows or of iron, stretched by oxen, barefoot, with houses of it marinates, and earth floor, where that that manage to go to the school, is very probable that it does not finalize his studies, by economic reasons or another incapacity.

In order to determine the proportions the affectation degree, one of them can be named, who are the lack of iodine, causes to drink waters nontreated, of stems or wells, that affects the.reason capacity, or that like the parasitism, or the sad incapacity at least to cover an essential minimum feeding basic, which they force the boy, to even accompany in the agricultural tasks to its parents like a fact totally accepted. Another shortage that undergoes the farmers is the indiscriminate invasion of earth by great adminisering extreme unction to of Brazilian colonos, that took control of extensive zones of border territory.
At the moment the cultural invasion in the northeast of the country, arrives until a more than 100 kilometers of the border with the Federal Republic of Brazil; earth where Paraguay lacks real control, and where one holds fast in a proportion respectable of national territory, the Brazilian culture and raigambre, losing presence in territories that tacitly are under foreign political sponsorship.

The tyrant aim of the oldest one of the continent until then, 35 years, at the moment is left Fidel I castrate in Cuba, (with 30 years in the power in that then), begins with the popular mobilizations of student unions, of workers and farmers in the decade of the 80. They always had coborn of mobilization during its regime; but quickly they were silenced with bloodthirsty cruelty. But in this decade, the international conditions had changed remarkably, and the U.S.A. modified their policy after the facts of Iran, Chile, Argentina, Thailand, Brazil, where the dictators with viciousness were causing damage in the population. The unions, timidly first, created independent gremiales power stations of the system that during years had them put under, and gained little by little the streets endorsed and protected by the eclesial class. Thus, between the students, to the FUP, the FEUP arose to him, between the workers, to the CPT, the CUT and the CNT arose to them; and the farmers also created central regional gremiales that were pronounced every time with greater force and organization. Without forgetting that the prohibited political forces, were organized every time with greater capacity of call and real activism.

To this, something transcendental was added; the weakening of the system was accentuated suddenly, with the fracture of the Red Party, where looking for unrestricted loyalties, it blesses the holdup perpetrated by a sector of the party, the stronistas combatant militants, moving the traditionalistic ones, the most ideological and compatible wing to the postulates of the party.

In a convention of the Red Party, in August of 1987, to choose the new authorities, the accesses to the premises of the Governing body are blocked, (quite subtle name with smooth facist scent, confusing to the citizenship, as if outside a governmental institution; being something net in favor politician).

With a crude political maneuver, they assume the militants the direction of the party. The traditionalistic red sector is radiated of the cupola and the surroundings of the dictator, having lost those benefits and the substantial economic advantages which they enjoyed when they had the in favor power.

Once the militants held fast in the power, before the debilitated condition of health of the old dictator, impelled the figure of the son of the same one to happen it. The lieutenant colonel of Gustavo Aviation Adolph Stroessner Moor, who rather was a prosperous industralist in the shade of her father, who military assets, with a null right to exercice civil rights. This disturbed still more to the High Commands of the FF.AA. that saw an increasing danger in this political imposition, since Gustavo was still very young in the military roster, and all those that hierarchically were over him, would be terminated gradually until finally catapulting it in highest of the military cupola. This got to be another cause more than it would trigger the fall of the wreck and obsolete regime.

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