A History of Paraguay
By Baruja, Paiva & Pinto
preference, Dr. Luis González Macchi, the President of the
Senate, assumed the position of President of the Republic. It is
still to be seen whether his position will correspond until the
end of the presidential term, or if he is only temporary. At the
time of the closing of the web page, it is under the jurisdiction
of the Supreme Justice Court to determine the situation.
The politicians, threatened
by the barbarism Oviedist were under the citizen's protection which
worthily offered its collaboration to keep the state of law, assumed
a worthy posture of such dramatic acts, forming a government of
a national coalition, where the three major parties' politicians
negotiated by means of satisfied government.
t was neither a gracious
concession of the Colorado Party. All the political sectors united,
and had active participation to displace the power to this totalitarian
group. Also, the Colorados, breaking off the same party, before
the internal crisis which conducted the nation through an impossible
and critical spiral of social crisis, where they imposed their struggle
for power between dictatorial people and business men; had dragged
the same party almost to plain politics. The Colorado party, used
to imposing, and reluctant to make pacts with other parties, realized
this transcendental step, for the reasons mentioned, but we believe
that they would allow purification of their lines. The factious
groups probably without counting the option of taking advantage
of this powerful party, it as well insatiably nourished of the state;
without possibility to keep following with it, will indefectibly
be expelled of its womb. We wait that this aptitude will be revolutionary
for the party, again allowing popular young politicians, and with
true capacities and ideological and political convictions; and will
go on renovating undoing itself from the submission to the whims
and interests of those in favor.
The young and all the
citizens (in a mostly-Asunción proportion), conformed by
members of all political parties, by non-political sectors, and
actives forces in general, and protected by the Catholic Church
which sheltered many brave citizens in the Cathedral, along with
the farmers and the workers, succeeded in breaking the predominant
influence of the one party of almost 60 years, which the politicians
did not succeed in all the democratic transition of 10 years.
But one must analyze
harshly. The country areas of the nation did not react in the same
way at the capital and metropolitan populations.
It is fundamental that
the politicians insist in such an important fraction and of tremendous
electoral weight, which passively watched the successes of the capital.
Also, many rural sectors were not even aware of what had happened.
Another worry is that
although it was an inorganic phenomena, spontaneous and numerous,
she was not supported by well organized unions, but for a few exceptions.
It is fundamental that the student unions in organic form possessed
the most capacity of reaction and compromise, hanging material in
the formation of future generations. This reorganization should
be driven forward in active and effective form.
Hanging and Urgent
Obligations - Reconstructing the Fatherland once and for all
It is hard reorganizing
the country, especially when she is already several steps behind
in her own history of the nations. After all these years, 1999 surprised
the country with a glimmer of hope to emerge definitively toward
her supported progress and the advancing of the living conditions.
We are waiting for
concrete direction or will of the central government to set the
course for the future of the nation coming to the end of the century,
the nation shows an aspect of lacking and weaknesses, existing problems
which require more than urgency, has passed the state of common
crisis, as is a demographic explosion, the lack of assistance in
education and health, the lack of equal distribution of land to
the laborers, the sanitary cover, of treated waters, the depredation
of the forests, of the fauna, the contamination of the environment,
the invasion of Brazilian colonists of enormous extensions of the
land, the loss of national culture, the indiscriminate contraband,
the narcotics traffic, the auto traffic, the uncontrollable delinquency,
the lack of basic means of communications, the unchecked and striking
corruption, the lack of order and agreement between the heirs of
the old regimen, and the lack of jobs almost to the point of desperation,
by which the nation continues to be run by the groups of politicians
interested in negotiating, which will hopefully be displaced once
and for all from power. We hope that the direction of the Republic's
institution will prioritize until the passing of power in August
The country for its
immediate future will require an urgent solution to these problems,
because the conditions of globalization, in this "new"
conception of regionalization which is the Mercosur, puts the nation's
situation in a very sad state, in the regional context. They can't
even offer quality work to cover the jobs in this macro market,
due to the deficiency of the technical and superior formation. The
country gave neither the minimal conditions nor internal guarantees
to implant the foreign capital in the territory, and all those who
wished to cover this global market, installed in the adyacencias
to the country, due to its small size, and does not deserve much
strategic interest. If this does not offer valid options, the neighboring
nations will simply produce merchandise, and the nation will converts
into a mere and net market consumer of second category. They do
not produce anything in considerable proportions, with the exception
of basic materials such as soy or cotton, or the production of meat
from the large haciendas. No product of added worth leaves the nation
in acceptable quantities, so that they obtain currencies that resolve
the same provided to the few exceptional companies that took root
on our ground, are limited to third or fourth level places. The
technicians of average control or specialized find work in neighboring
nations because the jobs in the country are downgraded to much inferior
and low jobs.
The country cannot
offer services, because the knowledge of technology and qualified
capacity are at elementary levels. The industrialist class, for
years sucking in the benefits of the dictatorship, before the opening
of the market, are seen in the grave dilemma of getting itself out
of the comfortable cart to support a system totally out of phase
and putrid, to face this challenge, which leaves it in immeasurable
disadvantages. To maintain itself, it should demand, and to demand
it should have a market, and as such is nonexistent, by the economic
recession, and enter foreign markets as little as possible, by the
dimensions of the local industries, and by the quality of the products
They have overcome
and annulled the protective barriers, and the internal market is
more miserable every time, critical and extremely poor. The economic
rudder keeps chaining and depending on the electoral mass of public
workers to those who earn the access to power of the Colorado party.
Like this, the actual circumstances, should separate this perverse
situation. We are on the edge of the precipice, while other nations
of the region try to recuperate from the ominous times of their
respective dictatorships with progress, plans, and clear objectives;
lamentably in ours the things are muddled.
There are many needs
in the Republic of Paraguay. The youth in very little time, before
this crossroads, with the black horizon, will begin to exceed and
it is very probably that social explosions will occur with unthinkable
consequences which the political class has the obligation to foreshadow.
The nation should begin to develop, because one cannot even say
"before it's too late," because it has been awhile since
it was too late; and now it is the time in which we must run all,
to try to reach its height in history, to our reality, which assigned
a while ago a place that the inhabitants of this republic did not
deserve. Already too many youth are increasing the lines of the
unoccupied, and too many opt for leaving the nation for its neighbor
Argentina, forcing the economic "floor."
And in wait, what there
is in the long road walked
There is a silent class
in Paraguay that fights in the shadows, stoically, without rest,
with honor, with dignity, with much force to advance, and better
the conditions and expectations of life in the country. This group
of people, without having to be afraid, for years was contributing
its small grain of sand in the titanic effort to take its nation
out of the darkness, will not waver. Never lowered its arms, nor
will ever lower them.
One will always find
it fighting, tozudamente, determinedly, without making much noise,
without offending, without fighting frontally, empecinando in twisting
the sad defeat in which the nation is found in. this class, has
hope, has dreams, in it nests a thought, the day that it can see
a country modern, rich, and at the height that it deserves, and
it corresponds to be, with families, with men and women, reaping
its fruits of daily labor, and said to live in peace with its neighbor,
with its brother, free of those stupid prejudices that during so
many years the system of coexistence made us think, forever erasing
the blind fanaticism, exclusive and empty.
Privileged by nature,
this land does not deserve to keep supporting this, this tendal
of lack of flavor, misfortunes and disillusions. The barbarism of
the manipulation of man to quench hunger, like the political urge,
the blind vote, the beastly fanaticism, so preposterous and that
unashamedly happens in Paraguay even today, even until a little
while ago, will end. It is ending.
You and I, together
we will do it. We will definitely exile to its guaridas and mousetraps
to the prepotente class, alienante y exploliadora, and we will unite
with all the Paraguayans and foreigners that live on this land to
strengthen it with work, effort, and dedication, whether we be managers
or workers, men or women, adults, youth or children. That day will
come sooner or later. And Paraguay will finally be redeemed of such
ingrate, miserable and dark history.
In a nation, where
at the end of the 20th century, should have been offered a healthy
youth, cultured and prepared, with means and expectations of reasonably
worthy lives, much the same as any moderately modern nation, we
keep confronting stupid internal fights, that the ruling class presents
and imposes upon us, like leit motiv of our daily living. We should
destroy this at any cost.
Remembrance, Loor to
the Martyrs, to the Fighters of Yesterday, of Today and of Forever.
(By Victor Luis Baruja R.)
This may clash with
what I have written. No matter. I will be more personal. You have
the right to reject it; or be offended, get annoyed or disqualify
it. But I assure you that we are many that are filled at heart by
happiness for the act that you can think, argue, speak, write or
protest. If you do not know, or do not remember, it has been nine
years (the year 1999 runs), Paraguay was almost a cadaver; surviving,
cold, without feeling, without thoughts, with signs of nothing,
in a comatose state. Only a small pulse was detected, barely any
vital signs. We the people that lived on this land were only machines
of miserable production and distribution, to keep our taxes a machinery
of unquenchable thieves. And if you do not remember, think, remember
the fear. The terrible fear that penetrated our veins and grew stronger
through our bodies, through our souls. That fear we felt since we
woke up until we lay down, that ran through our veins, through our
dreams. It drowned our joys, and covered us with a mantle of crude
silence. This fear, the cruelest of all. Remember. Remember the
fear to THINK. That fear is no longer with us. We have defeated
that fear. We have overcome. It's gone. It is no longer here. Who
expelled it from our hearts, from our bodies? It wasn't the cannon
shots of Rodríguez. It was the shouts or the still silence
buy incólume of thousands of Paraguayans and foreigners,
who have fought all these years. We owe it to them.
To those who are still
here, and to those who are no longer here. This is in recognition
of eternal gratitude. For the perseverance, the indifference to
pleasure or pain, and the dignity. I will not name them. I cannot
name all of them, so many there are. Thank you, sirs of my fatherland,
brave men of their time.
I am a countryman,
who embraces a dream. One day, the sun surprises the waking of my
children, with a glimmer of hope, word and happiness, in a just
nation, with neither violence nor abuse.
LONG LIVE PARAGUAY.
LONG LIVE LIBERTY. LONG LIVE THE RIGHT TO THINK. LONG LIVE THE BRAVE
MEN OF MY LAND. LIKE LIONS THEY HAVE FOUGHT, AND THE TRUE PLAYERSS,
HAVE SILENTLY RETIRED WITH A HERGUIDA FRONT, TO LICK ITS WOUNDS.
WE MUST NOW FIGHT AND CONVINCE OURSELVES THAT THE FATHERLAND IS
FINALLY OURS. THAT THE MEMORY OF OUR MARTYRS EXILE FOREVER THE MILITARISM,
THE BLIND FANATICISM AND THE SUBMISSION OF THE INSTITUTIONALITY
OF THE NATION TO THE GLASSES OF GROUPS OF ECONOMIC POWERS. DO NOT
STEAL ANY LONGER FROM THE PEOPLE. BECAUSE IN MEMORY OF THEM, WE
TODAY, ARE PLAYERS, AND WE WILL NOT ALLOW IT. LET US TOGETHER BUILD
OUR FUTURE DEMANDING OUR CLAIMS. NOT ONE DROP OF BLOOD WILL EVER
DROP BY POLITICAL QUESTIONS. NEVER MORE THE IMPUNIDAD.
NEVER AGAIN REPRESSION.
NEVER AGAIN PREBENDARISM. NEVER AGAIN MONEY OF THE PEOPLE WASTED
LAUGHABLY IN POLITICAL PROSELTISM. THE PUBLIC STATE TREASURY IS
SACRED, LIKE THE MEMORY OF OUR DEAD, BECAUSE IT IS OUR DAILY SWEAT.